Collage 14. - Statistical thermodynamics Collage:
It seeks to address how are the microscopic properties of individual molecules related to the properties of a sample which contains 1023
molecules, or – more macroscopic world . We can think of statistical thermodynamics as a process of model building In the macroscopic world
we deal with quantities such as internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, heat capacities, and so on. In the microscopic world we deal with wave
functions, particle momenta, kinetic and potential energies, energy levels, and so on. The usual theoretical framework of the microscopic
world is quantum mechanics and the fundamental equations are Schrödinger's equations .
The point of contact between the two disciplines is taken to be the function for Entropy S which is a function of the thermodynamic variables
S=S(U, V, N) etc, with U being internal energy, V volume.
Statistical thermodynamics involves probabilities, therefore collage shows graphs of distribution of energies of particles present in system.
The approach to the foundations of statistical thermodynamic th is sometimes referred to as “Boltzmannian”, collage includes photo of
physicist Ludwig Boltzmann , representing a development of ideas originally put forward by Boltzmann—postulates a probability distribution
over a set of possible initial conditions for the universe.
Collage shows that
1. Statistical thermodynamics is based on the fundamental assumption that all possible configurations of a given system, which satisfy the
given boundary conditions such as temperature, volume and number of particles, are equally likely to occur.
2. The overall system will therefore be in the statistically most probable configuration. The entropy of a system S is defined as the
logarithm of the number of possible configurations multiplied with Boltzmann’s constant S=k ln W.. The totality of these microstates, and
their associated energy, is determined from a partition function..
Message of Collage:The theory of the relations between various macroscopic observables such as temperature, volume, pressure,
magnetization and polarization of a system is called thermodynamics.Statistical Thermodynamics is the theory of the physical behaviour of
macroscopic systems starting from a knowledge of the microscopic forces between the constituent particles. Thermodynamics is concerned
about heat and direction of heat flow,statistical thermodynamics gives properties of heat like heat capacity in terms of structure of matter.
Sukarma Thareja's Educational Collages
She has been teaching physical chemistry to graduate and post graduate classes in
Ch,Ch. Post Graduate college, CSJM Kanpur University for last twenty years.
Se has very keen in making science popular among students. She has made several
Educational art collages to recapitulate basic concepts of physical chemistry in class
room teaching. Constructing these collages in class room is a very pleasant experience.
This makes students happy, active and class room atmosphere also gets charged up.
She is also in-charge of Painting, Collage and rangoli activities of the college. She has
also presented/published many research papers in national and international
Through this activity of making Educational collages she has been trying her best to
bring science and arts together so that students of both discipline could appreciate
and learn from them and get benefited in the subject knowledge also.
Her collages are her humble efforts to help visual learners. Her foray into such
diversified subjects such as Science and Arts with such meticulous dedication leaves
one mystified. We welcome her art and wish her all the best.
A few links for those interested in some of her scientific papers:
Assessment of Water Quality of Ganga River in Kanpur by Using Principal Components Analysis -- Sukarma Thareja, Siddhartha Choudhury
and Priyanka Trivedi.
Utility of the Sorbie-Murrell functional form in fitting the potential energy surface for the ground and the lowest excited state of
triatomic hydrogen (H3) -- Sukarma Thareja & N. Sathyamurthy.
Nuclear Safety and environment --- Sukarma Thareja
Contact the Artist and Professor directly for all enquiries at :
Address : Ch,Ch. Post Graduate college, CSJM Kanpur University, kanpur, UP, India.
e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
|Sukarma Thareja's Educational Collages
Please click on the small pictures to see Enlarged Views
Dr.Sukarma Thareja was born on 31.5.1954.
She is a M.Sc., Ph.D in Chemistry and is a professor at Christ
Church Post Graduate College, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj
University (CSJM Kanpur University), Kanpur.
|Collage – 1
It shows solid state-which is depicted as horse. Horse has
special significance as it has solid body and was used as means
of transportation in India . In a way it shows eco friendly
transportation and respect for animal. This does evoke query
from students about animals kingdom.
|Collage – 2
It is on chemical kinetics.
Two cats in collage show -thermodynamics-chemical kinetics
Main points covered are-reaction rates, reaction energy,
spontaneous reaction, activation energy, rate law, order of
reaction and half life of reaction.
|Collage - 3
Main points covered in collage are,Thermodynamic system surrounding,
boundary Example of an open system-ocean , closed system-earth, isolated
system – closed thermos bottle.
Process through which heat can be supplied to thermodynamic system :
isothermal process, adiabatic process, isobaric process, isochronic process.
Graphical representation of above mentioned thermodynamic processes.
First law of Thermodynamics: an accounting system to keep track of the
energy in a thermodynamics system and the changes in the energy caused by
heat transfer and work. General expression of work done by/on the system.
Take Home message ---Collage has one bigger confused face and one smaller
happier face showing that before studying thermodynamics through this
collage you may be confused person but after seeing this collage carefully
you will be happiest person
Collage - 5. Chemical Equilibrium
Concept covered: This is equilibrium, a balance between forward and
reverse reactions the reaction is in equilibrium it means
rate of forward reaction =rate of backward reaction
Even though rate of forward reaction =rate of backward reaction
,Concentration of component on both sides of reaction may not be equal.
K = Equilibrium constant =[ Product]/ [Reactant]
.Larger K means more product at equilibrium
.Smaller K implies more reactants at equilibrium.
Characterstics of reaction which is in chemical equilibrium
.Concentration of species participating in the equilibrium does not change.
.A chemical equilibrium can always be attained by approaching the
equilibrium from more than one direction. .Presence or absence of
catalyst does not affect the equilibrium concentrations of reactants .
.At constant Temperature the concentrations of various species involved
in equilibrium mixture can be expressed by mathematical relationship.
Take home message is ;chemical equilibrium collage is in shape of bat
which is a vertebrate animal,but still flies insky by making equilibrium.
This gives us the message that like bat always try to make equilibrium in
life. I close my collage lesson with a quote : Old chemist never die they
just attain equilibrium.
Collage - 6. Gases
Concept Covered: Collage shows gases in shape of balloon showing Boyle’
s, Charles ,Gay Lussac’s Law along their graphical representations.
Take home Message of Collage Gases collage. It is A known fact that
gas balloon when left in air goes very high therefore balloon gives
message that though gases are easiest state of matter but their
knowledge in parameters of Temperature ,Pressure and Volume,
Amount of gas and relation between these parameters are known as
gas laws; can take knowledge seekers to heights of success. The
orange colour in hindu mythology is sign of bravery. This explanation
and pictures of scientist Boyle’s, Charles ,Gay Lussac’s really helps
and inspires students to learn about gases
Collage - 7. Potential Energy Surface
Concept Covered: Potential energy surface (PES) is foundation of molecular dynamics as Peacock is to all birds in India. This collage takes us to
beautiful journey of PESs. It starts with two dimensional potential energy curve, general features of PES, saddle point ∆H, potential well,
lowest energy reaction path(transition state), and reaction coordinate, non reactive/reactive Trajectory.F+ HCl---->F-H + Cl (Exothermic
reaction), potential energy surface for a reaction as a contour diagram
Endothermic reaction Ozone---Iso Ozone H=+5kcal/mol ,ozone∆ isomerisazion reaction surface: local minima on PES ie reactant ozone,
product iso ozone, saddle point connecting local minima, at saddle point ∆E/∆Q=0, where Q is a reaction coordinate.
Contours maps of FHCCH- and FHF- ions . Top of Peacock shows celebrated collinear and non collinear PES of H+H2-- H2+H. The
fundamental equation , Schrodinger wave equation H Ψ=EΨ used to get energy values for plotting PESs is shown as carpet.
Take home message: Peacock is national bird of India as Potential energy surfaces: the key to structure, dynamics, and thermodynamics The
reason we care about potential energy surfaces is because they can help give us understand reaction mechanisms.
Collage - 10. Metal Reactivity
Concept covered : Over the years, enterprising scientists have thought of many ways to categorise and arrange the known metallic elements -
the Periodic Table of the Elements being the best known - but perhaps the most accessible and useful is the Reactivity Series.
Collage shows the reactivity trend of metals . Gold and silver are very unreactive as they are at lower in reacive series while potassium and
sodium are very reactive as they are much up in reactivity series.
The reactivity series determines qualitatively characteristics of metals such as the reactions with water, oxygen and acids as demonstrated
A metal can replace metals listed below it in the activity series,but not above.For example, sodium is highly active and thus able to replace
hydrogen from water.
Metals that are more reactive than H are placed above H .Metals whose reactivity is less than that of H are placed below H
The reactivity series gives an idea as to which element is capable of displacing other elements in a displacement reaction
Collage Message -collage showing metal reactivity gives the message that proper utilization of this knowledge is in hands of mankind and if
used properly the beautiful earth environment can be saved;A heritage given to us by our forefathers which we have to hand over to coming
generations very safely.
Collage - 9. Mole Concept.
Concept covered - The multiple interpretations of the mole allow us to bridge the gap between the submicroscopic world of atoms and molecules
and the macroscopic world that we can observe.
LION NO 1---1Mole -----in terms of particles --- = 6.023 x 1023 particles(Avogdros Number)
LION NO-2 - The atomic masses given in the periodic table could be either atomic masses (amu unit) or molar masses (g/mol unit).
1Mole--------in terms of mass------1gram atom of elements—eg -12g C
The mass of one mole of a substance is called MOLAR MASS symbolized by MM
Units of MM are g/mol
Molar mass is the mass of one mole of an element or one mol of a compound (unit in g mol-1).
LION NO 3 -1mole = ?g (refer to Periodic Table)
1Mole--------in terms of mass------1gram Molecule of substance----eg -18g H2O
Molecular mass is the average relative mass of a molecule of the substance as compared with mass of an atom of carbon (C-12) taken as 12 a.m.u.
Empirical formula is a chemical formula that shows the simplest whole number ratio of all atoms present in a molecule.
LION NO-4-1 Mole ------in terms of mass-----1 gram Formula weight of substance---- eg-58.5 g of NaCl.
Molecular formula is a formula that shows the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule.
LION NO 5--1Mole-----in terms of volume----- = 22.4 L of a gas at STP
Middle LION- shows that mole concept in chemistry is so important the whole world celebrates mole day on 23rd October
Collage Message The present collage shows that if chemistry discipline is considered as jungle/forest,then lion is to jungle is like mole concept
to discipline of chemistry. For every decision of jungle one has to go through lion ,similarly for every chemical calculation in chemistry one has to
go through mole.
Collage - 8. “A substance”
Concept covered - In addition to "element", "mixture" and "compound", another useful term is the word "substance", which can be used to
refer to either an element or a compound - but not to a mixture because a "substance" always has a definite composition
Now the question is what does substance mean for organic chemist/analytic chemist/physical chemist/biochemist/chemical engineer .
Answer is: A substance is that:
1) An organic chemist turns it into a foul odor;
2) An analytical chemist turns it into a procedure;
3) A physical chemist turns it into a straight line;
4) A biochemist turns it into a helix;
5) A chemical engineer turns it into a profit.
Collage - 11. Le Chateliers principle
Le Chateliers principle states that If a system at equilibrium is disturbed by a change in temperature, pressure ,or the concentration of one
of the components, the system will shift its equilibrium position so as to counteract the effect of the disturbance
There can be stress on equilibrium reaction in form of increase in conc of reactants/product,increase of pressure, increase of temperature
Concept covered by collage:
1.effect of increase of concentration of reactants/product on H2+I2= 2HI
2.effect of increase of temperature on 2NO2(g)=N2O4(g)
3.effect of increase of pressure on N2(g)+3H2(g)= 2NH3(g)
Collage is shown in form of Earthen diya , a symbol of eliminiating darkness of knowledge .It counteracts the stress of storm and leads to new
equilibrium so that the light of knowledge spreads proving the Le Chateliers principle in real life also.
Collage - 12. Types of Chemical Reaction
As all of us know a whole new world is created through chemical reaction . This simply says that science really has its way to make wonders on
earth. And so, it is important for people who have direct connection with chemicals to know how these substances behave once they are
combined to other substances.
Concept covered in collage are:
indicators of chemical reaction
1.Formation of ppt. 2.Formation of gas 3.Change of colour 4.Emission of odor
Types of chemical reactions
1.Synthesis 2.Decomposition Reaction 3.Single Displacement Reaction 4.Double Displacement Reaction
Take home message:
Collage is in form of star .Students who have knowledge of types of reaction they can predict possible results when combining chemicals to
produce desirable results.Star has special significance in a sense that students who have this special knowledge of types of reaction are going
to be star of society.
Collage - 13. Liquid- Basic Concepts.
Middle of Collage explains:
Kinetic view of matter ie solid, liquid and gases
Measure of intermolecular forces is expressed in liquid properties in the form of boiling point,melting point delta H vapour,delta sublimation
Left and Right side of collage explains three basic types of interactions between molecules which are , in order of increasing strengths;
1. Dipole dipole interactions
2. Ion dipole Interaction
3. Van der Waals interactions or dispersion forces
4. Hydrogen bonds
Message: t`s wonderful to climb the liquid mountains of the sky. Behind me and before me is God and I have no fears.
- Helen Keller
Collage15. - History of Atom Through Postage Stamps
Commentary:The present educational collage shows the history of atoms through postage stamps. German physicist named Max Planck (1858-
1947) , proposed that energy behaved according to the equation E = hν , indicated birth of the quantum era. Einstein was able to use the idea
of quantized energy to Photoelectric Effect .Max Planck stamps and Einstein stamp shown in collage was issued in their honor when they
received their Nobel Prize for their findings. Ernest Rutherford, gave basic idea of an atom and advanced it with his “planetary model”. Bohr
suggested that the electrons circling atoms traveled in “well-defined circular orbits”. The stamp honoring Bohr shows his signature. Louis de
Broglie had proposed a theory whereby any particle exhibits wavelike properties no matter what its size. The de Broglie stamp shows a wave
for his de Broglie wavelengths overlaid with amplitude graphs showing where the particle is likely to be found. Nobel Prize winner of Physics
(1932) Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) put forward one of the first ideas of quantum mechanics, the Uncertainty Principle. This collage
includes stamp of Werner Heisenberg and illustrates a molecular structure honoring his theory helping to explain the structure of atoms and
Austria, Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961) nobel prize winner(1933), model replaced Bohr’s “Well-Defined Circular Orbits” with the idea of an
orbital. This became Schrödinger’s wave equation. The stamp for Schrödinger shows wave functions for two different electron orbitals
representing the electron density predicted by his wave equation..
Message of collage : Importance of postage stamps in scientific development cannot be denied. From the time of the ancient Greeks until
today, the visual concept of the atom is obscure, yet the mathematical concepts have grown stronger. The present collage shows development
of models of atoms through postage stamps. It starts with findings of Max Planck and ends at Schrödinger’s wave equation.